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    累積人氣

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打噴嚏的季節--文意測驗


An allergy is an overreaction by the immune system to something that is harmless to most people. Allergens are any substances that trigger an allergic reaction, ranging from dust to pollen to nuts. Allergies are sometimes passed down genetically, but it isn''t guaranteed that children will have allergies if a parent does. _(1)_

   Airborne-allergy symptoms are similar to typical flu-like symptoms, but in serious cases, they can eventually progress to asthma. Food and insect venom allergy symptoms can be mild to severe. _(2)_ Medical attention should be sought if there is difficulty breathing, severe swelling, dizziness, or an extreme drop in blood pressure because these are signs of anaphylactic shock (過敏性休克) and could turn into a life-threatening situation.

   Treatments for allergies can vary. Some allergens can simply be avoided, _(3)_ A different option for allergy sufferers is getting a vaccination. Vaccines expose the allergy sufferer to tiny amounts of the allergen._(4)_

   To people affected by allergies, the phrase "spring is in the air" actually means allergy season has begun because when the weather gets warmer, allergies flourish. While a tidy house cuts down on allergy symptoms, _(5)_ Allergens must be present in our lives so that we can develop our own immunity towards them. Contrary to what most mothers think, getting a little dirty is actually good for us.

(A) Mild symptoms can trigger rashes, an upset stomach, or an itchy mouth and throat.

(B) staying inside all the time or becoming a clean freak is not the solution.

(C) In addition, if a child does have allergies, they may not be the same ones as their parents.

(D) doctors'' offices will most likely be filled with people sneezing.

(E) Over time, the sufferer''s immune system should build a tolerance to the allergen and become less allergic to it.

(F) but others are inescapable and require over-the-counter or prescription medication to keep reactions under control.



  1. 第一題空格應選 (C)
    理由:
    a. 空格前提到,過敏(allergies)有時是基因遺傳,但不保證父母其中一人會過敏,所生的子女就同樣會過敏(it isn''t guaranteed that children will have allergies if a parent does)。
    b. (C) 選項中提到,要是子女會過敏,那也不一定會和父母親的過敏症狀相同。前後兩句皆有關鍵字 allergies,也都提到父母與子女之間過敏的遺傳關係,語意連貫,故選之。
    大補丸:
    a. In addition, S + V  除此之外,……
    例: Our company sells new and used cars. In addition, we have a car rental service.
    (我們公司賣新車和舊車。除此之外,我們還有租車服務。)

    b. allergy n. 過敏症

  2. 第二題空格應選 (A)
    理由:
    a. 空格前提到,食物和昆蟲毒液所造成的過敏可輕可重(allergy symptoms can be mild to severe)。
    b. (A) 選項提及,輕微的症狀(Mild symptoms)會引發紅疹、鬧肚子痛,或是嘴巴和喉嚨發癢。前後有關鍵字 mild(輕微的)和 symptoms(症狀),故選之。
    大補丸:
    a. symptom n. 症狀
    b. trigger vt. 引起,觸發
    例: The mayor''s speech triggered a riot among the crowd.
    (該市長的演說在群眾中引發暴動。)

    c. rash n. 疹子
    d. itchy a. 癢的

  3. 第三題空格應選 (F)
    理由:
    a. 空格前的子句提到,有些過敏原可以被避免(be avoided)。
    b. 選項中,可填入子句後半段以形成完整句子的有 (B)、(D) 及 (F),然僅 (F) 選項開頭有連接詞 but 可連接兩句,填入後語意亦連貫,表示但有些(過敏原)則無法避開(inescapable),需要成藥或處方箋藥物來控制過敏症狀,故選之。
    大補丸:
    a. inescapable a. 不可避免的
    b. over-the-counter  (藥等)不用處方箋的
    c. prescription n. 處方,藥方
    d. keep...under control  使……在掌控中
    例: Lily had a hard time keeping her new puppy under control.
    (莉莉控制不住她的新小狗。)

    e. reaction n. 反應

  4. 第四題空格應選 (E)
    理由:
    a. 空格前提到,疫苗讓過敏患者接觸到少量的過敏原(allergen)。
    b. (E) 選項接著說,時間一久,患者的免疫系統就較能容忍過敏原(allergen),並降低過敏反應,進一步了解釋疫苗的作用,且兩句中有關鍵字 allergen,故選之。
    大補丸:
    a. immune system n. 免疫系統
    b. tolerance n. 耐受性
    c. allergen n. 過敏原
    d. allergic a. 過敏的
    be allergic to...  對……過敏
    例: Julia is allergic to seafood. If she accidentally eats crab, her throat will swell up.
    (茱莉對海鮮過敏。要是不小心吃到螃蟹,她的喉嚨就會腫起來。)


    第五題空格應選 (B)
    理由:
    a. 空格前的子句提到,雖然整潔的(tidy)住家環境能減少過敏的症狀。
    b. 選項中可填入子句後半段以形成完整句子的僅剩 (B) 及 (D),然僅 (B) 填入後語意連貫,表示但長時間待在室內,或是養成潔癖並非解決之道,且前後兩句中的 tidy(整潔的)及 clean(乾淨的)形成關聯,故選之。
    大補丸:
    a. freak n. 狂熱愛好者;怪人
    b. solution n. 解決方法
    a solution to the problem  問題的解決之道
    例: We had to look for a solution to the problem before we could continue.
    (我們必須先尋求問題的解決之道才能繼續進行。)

中譯及解答:

 當免疫系統對多數人無害的東西反應過度時,就會產生過敏。過敏原就是引發過敏反應的物質,從灰塵、花粉到堅果類都有可能。過敏有時是基因遺傳,但不保證父母其中一人會過敏,所生的子女就同樣會過敏。另外,要是子女會過敏,那也不一定會和父母親的過敏症狀相同。

   因空氣傳播所造成的過敏症狀與典型的流感相似,但在極為嚴重的情況下,這種過敏症狀最後可能演變成氣喘。食物和昆蟲毒液所造成的過敏可輕可重。輕微的症狀會引發紅疹、鬧肚子痛,或是嘴巴和喉嚨發癢。但若是發生呼吸困難,嚴重腫脹、頭昏眼花或是血壓急速下降,則應該立刻尋求醫療協助,因為這些都是可能危及生命的過敏性休克的前兆。

   治療過敏的方法有許多種。有些過敏原可以被避免,但有些則無法避開,需要成藥或處方箋藥物來控制過敏症狀。過敏患者的另一項選擇是施打疫苗。疫苗讓過敏患者接觸少量的過敏原,時間一久,患者的免疫系統就比較能容忍過敏原,進而降低過敏反應。

   對於飽受過敏之苦的人來說,『春意瀰漫』這句話其實意味著過敏的季節來臨,因為當天氣回暖,過敏情形就會變本加厲。雖然整潔的住家環境能減少過敏的症狀,但長時間待在室內或是養成潔癖並非解決之道。我們生活四周必須存有過敏原,這樣我們本身才能發展出對過敏原的免疫力。和多數媽媽想法相反的是,髒一點其實對我們是有好處的。

 
標準答案: 1. (C) 2. (A) 3. (F) 4. (E) 5. (B)

More info:
  1. harmless a. 無害的
    harmful a. 有害的
    be harmless/harmful to...  對……無害∕有害
    例: Excessive drinking is harmful to your health.
    (飲酒過量有害健康。)
  2. range from A to B  範圍從 A 到 B(都有)
    例: The ages of the people at this meeting range from 20 to 50 years old.
    (這個會議上的人年齡從 20 歲到 50 歲都有。)
  3. guarantee vt. 保證,擔保
    例: Our customers are guaranteed a refund within a week.
    (我們保證顧客在一週內都可退貨。)
  4. option n. 選擇
    have no option but to V  除了……外別無選擇,不得不……
    例: Ed had no option but to sell his car to pay his credit card balance.
    (艾德不得不賣掉他的車來償還信用卡餘額。)
  5. expose A to B  使 A 暴露於∕接觸 B
    例: If you expose your skin to too much sun, you will get sunburned.
    (如果你過度曝曬在陽光下的話就會曬傷。)
  6. flourish vi. 旺盛;茂盛
    例: The plants I put on the balcony are flourishing in the warm sun.
    (我放在陽台的植物在溫暖的陽光下生長茂盛。)
  7. cut down on...  減少……(的量)
    例: The doctor advised Charles to cut down on his drinking.
    (醫生建議查爾斯少喝點酒。)
  8. contrary to...  和……相反(的是)
    例: Contrary to popular belief, the Great Wall cannot be seen from the moon.
    (和一般認知相反的是,從月球上看不到萬里長城。)
  9. be passed down         (被傳下來)
  10. spring is in the air   (春意瀰漫)

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